In the early 1990s, several unitary states in Southeast Asia initiated decentralization efforts, as documented in the 2005 World Bank report "East Asia Decentralizes." This discussion paper provides an updated analysis of these reforms, highlighting that they are largely driven by political dynamics, resulting in an incremental transfer of power and resources to lower levels while central governments maintain influence over subnational entities, ultimately promoting greater political pluralism and service delivery.
This volume of Fiscal Federalism surveys recent trends and policies in intergovernmental fiscal relations and subnational government, as countries emerge from the Coronavirus crisis. The chapters draw insights into good practices in fiscal federalism and how to resolve policy-making trade-offs.
This is a summary presentation on Green and Climate Finance in PEMNA countries.
Financial management information systems (FMIS) are central to expenditure control, transparency, and service delivery. The World Bank and donors have committed substantial resources to FMIS changes globally, seeing the potential advantages. However, the outcomes have frequently fallen short of expectations.This is a result of the complexity and wide variety of implementation issues that characterize FMIS initiatives. Despite their central role in supporting budget execution processes, the relationship between FMIS investments and public financial management (PFM) outcomes is often perceived as tenuous. Numerous analytical products try to close this disparity. This Guidance Note synthesizes this existing body of diagnostic and analytical work to provide practical and operational guidance for the design, implementation, and operationalization of FMIS systems to achieve improved PFM results.